National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living, EBCNV 2010
Enquête Nationale sur le Budget, la Consommation et le Niveau de Vie des Ménages, EBCNV 2010
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
The first National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living was conducted in 1968. Starting 1975, is a quinquennial survey that is conducted every 5 years .
The first survey.
THE CLEANED AND HARMONIZED VERSION OF THE SURVEY DATA PRODUCED AND PUBLISHED BY THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM REPRESENTS 100% OF THE ORIGINAL SURVEY DATA COLLECTED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS - TUNISIA (INS)
The National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption, and Standard of Living is a quinquennial survey. The 2010 survey is the ninth of its kind that was carried out by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) in Tunisia.
The eight previous surveys were conducted in 1968, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005, concurrently with the preparatory work for the Tunisian development plans.
The survey aims at providing detailed information on the procurement of goods and services for consumption. Its data was collected from direct observation of household consumption to allow for having the necessary elements to assess the situation & changes in the living standards & conditions of the households.
The National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption, and Standard of Living consists of three fundamental parts; the budget survey, the nutrition survey and the access to community services survey. Thus, it tackles three areas of study:
1- Households expenses and acquisitions during the survey period.
2 - Food consumption and nutritional status of households.
3 - Household access to health and education community services.
The main objectives of the "budget survey" are:
a- Estimate the levels of expenditure on the household level: The total expenditure of the household is not only an indicator on household income, but it is also a quantitative assessment of the standard of living index.
b- Evaluate the income distribution: Due to the absence of data on income distribution, the mass distribution of expenditure between the different categories of the population constitutes a first sketch for the income distribution in the country.
c- Assess the structure of expenditure: Detailed information collected on expenditures per product are used to establish the structures of the household expenditure, as well as the budget coefficients according to different levels of classifications of goods and services. These coefficients are particularly useful in the revision and development of the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) weights.
d- Predict the demand of households: The household behavior, assessed in terms of product demand, is synthesized by the coefficients of income elasticity, which, according to the model of consumption retained and under the assumptions of the growth of income and population, allows predicting future household demand.
e- Analyze the importance of consumer subsidies: analysis of the consumption of subsidized goods by expenditure deciles allows identifying the impact of direct consumer subsidies. It also allows evaluating the effectiveness of public policies grants.
The main objectives of "the nutrition survey" are:
a- Provide estimates of food consumption by product for different groups of households according to their demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
b- Estimate food consumption of each product by collecting data on the quantities consumed of each product by source, whether purchased or own produced.
c- Identify the nutritional status of the population according to its demographic, geographic and socio-economic level. The comparison between the standards needs of nutrients to those acquired by the household enables assessing of the nutritional status and thus deficits in different nutrients such as calories, protein, vitamins, calcium, ... can also be captured.
d- Estimate the calorie intake and energy needs of the Tunisian population: This estimate is indispensible in the calculation of the food component of the poverty line and, in consequence, the threshold of global poverty.
The main objective of "the access to community services survey" is to provide an overview on the state of morbidity of the Tunisian population, from one hand, and on the households' access to various health and education public services on other hand.
The raw survey data provided by the Statistical Agency were cleaned and harmonized by the Economic Research Forum, in the context of a major project that started in 2009. During which extensive efforts have been exerted to acquire, clean, harmonize,
preserve and disseminate micro data of existing household surveys in several Arab countries.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
V1.0: The raw version of the survey data used for cleaning and harmonization purposes only. This version is not publicly disseminated.
V2.0: A cleaned and a harmonized version of the survey dataset, including all harmonized variables that could be generated from the survey raw data, in addition to a number of detailed-composite coded version of the variables considered essential on the household as well as the individual level, produced by the Economic Research Forum for dissemination.
All documentation available for the original survey provided by the Statistical Agency, and for the harmonized datasets produced by the Economic Research Forum, has been published, along with a copy of all international classifications of expenditures, occupations and economic activities used during the harmonization process.
However, as far as the datasets are concerned, the Economic Research Forum produces and releases only the harmonized versions in both SPSS and STATA formats.
Household: Includes geographic, social, and economic characteristics of households, namely, household composition, dwelling characteristics, ownership of assets indicators, heads' and spouses' characteristics, annual household expenditure and income.
Individual: Includes demographic, migration, education, labor and health characteristics, as well as annual income for household members identified as earners. Moreover, fathers' and mothers' characteristics are generated for household members if possible.
Covering a sample of all urban, small and medium towns and rural areas.
The survey covered a national sample of households and all individuals permanently residing in surveyed households.
Producers and sponsors
Economic Research Forum
National Institute of Statistics - Tunisia
The National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living, 2010 has focused initially on a sample of 13,392 households drawn using a two stages stratified random sampling in each governorate.
The sampling frame follows that of the General Census of Population and Housing in 2004 which was updated during the implementation of the National Population and Employment Survey in 2009.
The sampling frame is stratified by two geographical criteria: namely the governorate and the living area. The latter is stratified as follows: large cities, medium and small cities, and non-communal areas.
These stratification criteria (governorate, living area and size of city) represent variables that differentiate between surveyed households' lifestyles. Thus, the 3 strata types used are as follows:
Stratum of large cities (stratum 1): This stratum is formed of large urban centers corresponding to municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants and neighboring municipalities.
Stratum of medium and small cities (stratum 2): This stratum includes all medium and small sized cities other than those classified in the stratum of large cities.
Stratum of non-communal areas (stratum 3): It includes agglomerations in rural areas that are classified as major agglomerations in the General Census of Population and Housing 2004 and the National Population and Employment Survey in 2009. In addition to other areas that are located outside the territory of main municipalities and cities.
Households in these areas reside in scattered dwellings or are grouped in small agglomerations.
The sampling frame is divided on the level of each governorate according to strata previously defined. On the stratum level, a two-stage random sampling is planned for the selection of the survey sample of households.
This process allows to breakdown the sample into clusters of 12 households relatively little distant from each other, thereby facilitating the conduct of the survey at the time of the information collection in the field.
In the first stage, a sample of 1,116 primary units is drawn in proportion to the number of households identified in the 2009National Population and Employment Survey. Taking into consideration that the primary units correspond to the districts that have been defined in the General Census of Population and Housing in 2004, which are geographic areas comprising on average 70 households.
In the second stage, from each primary unit (or cluster), twelve households are drawn through a simple random sampling technique.
A substitutive sample of 12 additional households is further drawn from each primary unit. Those additional households constituting a substitutive list are used to cover for unidentified households at the time of the survey, given the mobility of households and the period between the date on which the sample is drawn and the date on which the survey is conducted.
The size of the sample drawn in the first stage is 1,116 primary sampling units (PSU) corresponding to 13,392 households. The samples in the second stage are 12 households per primary unit.
To optimize the use of logistic and material resources available, a sample of at least 36 PSU was selected from the less populated governorates, 3 PSU per month (the survey is conducted over a 12 months period).
This represents the monthly work of the survey team (3 interviews and 1 supervisor to whom a car is assigned).
Moreover, as the number of households varies from one governorate to another, it was agreed to adopt different rate of sampling from one governorate to another.
The following table shows the regional distribution of the sample and the corresponding sampling rates.
Regional Distribution of the Survey Sample
Second stage sampling rate
Household sample (%)
During the National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption and Standard of Living, 2010, 11,281 out of 13,992 households responded to the survey questionnaire. This represents a response rate of 84.2%.
The percentage of non-response is either due to the exceptional circumstances that occured in Tunisia during the revolution period (January 14, 2011), or due to the refusal of some households to be surveyed.
It should be noted that the nutrition survey was only collected from half of the sample only to avoid annoying the surveyed households.
The survey results are extrapolated to the total population of the 3 strata.
The coefficients are calculated on the basis of the population of January 1st, 2011.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The sample selection method and techniques are designed so that the data collection of the 12 households drawn from each PSU is conducted over a 1 month period.
The main objective of this survey is to estimate the total annual household expenditure. Therefore, the observation period at a given household was conducted over a four weeks period (7 daily records + 2 decadal records). Thus, goods and services have been classified into categories of products that are each affected by one or more types identified. The frequency of records and reference periods vary according to the nature and regularity of different households expenditures.
To better monitor all expenditure categories, four types of records are identified:
a) Record of regular expenses: This record is designed to collect regular and periodic expenses incurred by the household. The extrapolation of the annual amoumts of these expenses is based on the latest invoice paid by the houshold and data collected on the periodicity of paying such invoices.
b) Weekly record: This record is concerned with all products, including food products, acquired by the household on daily basis. These
products are observed in each of the seven days of the week through daily records.
c) Monthly record: This record covers monthly goods and services expenses, including all storable food products that can be acquired in large quantities, in addition to non-food regular expenses. All these products are observed and tracked during the month of the survey at each household sample (during exactly 4 weeks).
d) Annual record: This record includes large expenditure amounts and goods and services whose acquisition frequency is reduced. For these products, the year is selected to be the observation period.
National Institute of Statistics
The National Survey on Household Budget, Consumption, and Standard of Living questionnaire consists of three parts:
(1) The budget survey.
(2) The nutrition survey.
(3) The access to community services survey.
The sampling units were uniformly distributed over the 12 months of the survey year. Thus, a constant volume of work is conducted at each stage of the survey.
The data entry of the survey records collected was conducted in the INS regional offices using the CsPro software.
It should be also noted that the data coding and entry work was done in parallel with the fieldwork.
The data processing, calculations and outputs are performed using STATA.
The analysis of survey data can then allow for further elaboration of final results.
- The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) is used to clean and harmonize the datasets.
- The harmonization process starts with cleaning all raw data files received from the Statistical Agency.
- Cleaned data files are then all merged to produce one data file on the individual level containing all variables subject to harmonization.
- A country-specific program is generated for each dataset to generate/ compute/ recode/ rename/ format/ label harmonized variables.
- A post-harmonization cleaning process is then conducted on the data.
- Harmonized data is saved on the household as well as the individual level, in SPSS and converted to STATA format.
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF) - 21 Al-Sad Al-Aaly St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt
To access the micro data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement.
The data will be used only for scholarly research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
The users should cite the Economic Research Forum and the National Institute of Statistics -Tunisia as follows:
OAMDI, 2014. Harmonized Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HHIES), http://www.erf.org.eg/cms.php?id=erfdataportal. Version 2.0 of Licensed Data Files; EBCNV 2010 - National Institute of Statistics (INS),Tunisia. Egypt: Economic Research Forum (ERF).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Economic Research Forum and the National Institute of Statistics in Tunisia have granted the researcher access to relevant data following exhaustive efforts to protect the confidentiality of individual data. The researcher is solely responsible for any analysis or conclusions drawn from available data.
(c) 2014, Economic Research Forum | (c) 2010, National Institute of Statistics, Tunisia
DDI Document ID
Economic Research Forum
Cleaning and harmonizing raw data received from the Statistical Agency