Data Collection Notes
A) Pilot Survey
To achieve the objectives of the study, questionnaires and instructions and coding manual were developed in accordance with the rules and standards established for the four countries involved in this study on micro and small enterprises.
Given the complexity of the study and the importance of obtaining reliable data, it was necessary to conduct a pilot study to test all documents and methodological approaches in the field prior to the implementation of the main survey.
The main objectives below were assigned to carry out the pilot survey:
·assess administrative difficulties and location of PU / DC;
·test the validity of the methods used for the preparation of frames and data collection, including those relating to: (1) scanning the economic units and households accompanying sample selection and data collection and (2 ) scanning economic units and households drawing samples at the office and conducting the survey the following day.
·test the adequacy and the degree of applicability of the sampling methodology;
·test the validity of survey documents (questionnaires, instructions, ...);
·various evaluations: organization, team training, contacts difficulty, motivation, difficulties in collecting, sensitive issues, completion time, cost ...
To meet the objectives listed above, the pilot survey was conducted for 10 days in January 2001, according to the methodology described in the preliminary report of this study (Preliminary sampling methodology, December 31, 2000) and concerned the sites below:
1) Casablanca 4 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "Luxury and Modern": 1 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "New Medina": 1 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "Old Medina": 1 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "Precarious & Clandestine" 1 PU / DC
2) Big City 3 UP / DR: Meknes
- Stratum habitat "New Medina": 1 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "Old Medina": 1 PU / DC
- Stratum habitat "Precarious & Underground": 1 PU / DC
3) Small / Medium City: Tiflet
- 1 PU / DC
1) Province: Khémisset (a Douar a dependent rural town Tiflet)
- 1 PU / DC
A7-day training was provided to the entire survey staff of 16 interviewers, 3 team leaders supervisors and 3 back-up interviewers .The staff has been selected from a total of 30 people who have received training.
The analysis of quantitative and qualitative data of the preliminary investigation has corrected anomalies methodological documents prepared and realize the documents used in the main survey. The results of this work have been documented in a report entitled " Projet Micro et Petites Entreprises : Résultats de l'Enquête Pilote/Maroc ; 2001 "
B) Phase 1 /baseline survey
The success of a field interviewing depends largely on the manner in which it is planned and executed. Thus, during the phase of data collection in the field, a suitable device has been set up to ensure the smooth running of the operation. This device includes the preparation of a proper investigation logistics, recruitment and training of survey personnel and organization of data collection in the field.
Taking into account the relative importance of the sample size and its distribution by province / prefecture objects of study, the recruitment of a survey of 55 people staff was needed. To ensure the quality of information collected and the efficiency of work in the field, each of the supervisors and interviewers was recruited based on his qualifications and past experiences in the field of surveys by direct interview. In addition, each of the interviewers / supervisors achieved a grade at least equal to university degree. A team of experts mobilized for this study supervised the staff survey.
To ensure effective implementation of the data collection in the field, the entire interviewing staff received a 13-day training. of preparation for the execution of the survey. This training was provided by the survey experts and has processed all its aspects, focusing on the concepts and basic definitions. To confirm the full assimilation of interviewers training, training sessions at the office were supplemented by simulations of field investigation.
Also, a set of instructions including explanations of all the steps to follow in the actual interviews and to be used as a reference in the field, was made available to auditors and interviewers.
Additional training devoted to sampling methods, methods of control and organization of field monitoring was provided to the supervisors.
A rigorous selection process involved all trained survey staff, and only 42 of the 55 people trained were selected, 34 interviewers from which 4 are back-up and 8 supervisors with one back-up.
The launch of collection of field data was carried out in close collaboration with 1) the local authorities and 2) regional offices of the Ministry of Economic Forecasting and Planning.
In addition to the control system, a system of supervision by the experts of the study and coordinated management of the fieldwork was developed.
The first field day allowed supervisors and controllers to install teams at each site investigated and make contact with local authorities and the Regional Delegation of the Ministry of Planning, which were previously informed of the survey implementation. These contacts aimed to ensure the support and assistance of the local authorities and facilitate the work of interviewers.
The monitoring team conducted subsequently and permanently, tours of monitoring and control to ensure the proper conduct of the field survey. She followed with the team leaders the progress of the data collection state and replace, if necessary, sample units by reserve units.
Data collection involved a sample of 5210 economic units representing almost all economic units of the Kingdom. The collection operation is divided into two periods: May-August 2002 and October 2002, which completed the sample.
Main problems encountered during the data collection in the field
1) Households screening
The total household screening needed a lot of time and caused a lot of problems without achieving significant results in terms of location of new economic units at home or inside the PU. A partial screening would have been more appropriate (optimal) for this kind of surveys.
The duration of interview ab was very long, an average of 2 hours and 8 minutes (109 minutes for the questionnaire "Enterprise" and 19 minutes to the questionnaire "household").This time the interview is at least twice as long as we deem best practice in data collection of acceptable reliability (Suggestion made by men land-interviewers and supervisors with extensive experience in collection data. These results were indicated in reports of work completion of data collection in the field or given verbally in meetings to discuss the problems of collection.)
Indeed, experience in this field shows that even if the collection is performed by a qualified, reliable data still function key elements for both the interviewer and the respondent, namely the psychological effect (large form), fatigue and tiredness leading to the formulation of rapid, and not accurate answers, and formulating insufficient explanations... It will be necessary in the future to review and better target aims to reduce by at least 1/3 the amount of information of the current questionnaire "Enterprise".
Information on variables, including those related to the performance of the company are highly reliable and sometimes questionable. Indeed, a significant proportion of entrepreneurs / managers are illiterate and few respondents hold regular accounting records. It is therefore necessary to have auxiliary information (auxiliary variables highly correlated with the study variables) sufficiently reliable to make the necessary adjustments and calibrations of survey data.
Rapid assessment of difficulties filling two questionnaires:
· Questions 1 to 104 do not generally pose problems the respondent answers easily.
· Questions 105-111: some respondents begin to ask questions about the true purpose of the investigation and any related taxes.
· Questions 112-123: some entrepreneurs find it difficult to sufficiently precise percentages.
· Questions 124-160: usually little or no problems with regard to these issues.
· Questions 161-179: the estimated working capital for entrepreneurs is difficult and requires a lot of time and thought
· Questions 180-248: little or no problems with these issues.
· 249-265 questions are the most difficult questions, require a lot of time and effort both on the part of the respondent that the interviewer arise at a time when the respondent is tired by the effort on answering the previous 248 questions.
The problem is worse with illiterate entrepreneurs / managers and / or not holding regular accounting records.
· 266-275 Questions: little or no problems here.
· Questions 276 to 322: the only difficulty lays in the estimation of in kind benefits.
Some respondents may have questions about the usefulness of the questionnaire and its relationship with the Enterprise questionnaire.
The household survey is relatively easy except in matters related to household income (questions 18 to 29) for which it is necessary to make adjustments based on other reliable sources.
The basic problem is to find the entrepreneur / manager available. Indeed, for a significant proportion of respondents, several contacts and visits were needed, especially in industrial areas, before completing the questionnaire. However, former migrant entrepreneurs easily accept to be interviewed.
Respondents belong to different social and educational backgrounds levels, so they do not respond to the survey in the same way. Some therefore agree with little or no problems answer questions, while others are suspicious and sometimes aggressive but all formulate the same point: the questionnaire is too heavy.