Combined Survey of Enterprises’ Digitization, SED_2022
Survey of Enterprises' Digitization (ENT/SED)
The Combined Survey of Enterprises' Digitization is containing of three surveys, that include Egypt, Jordan and Morocco. The data sets integrate and harmonize data and variables for two phases of data collection during 2022 in the three countries.
Digitalization plays a vital role in the firms' performance. In order to assess the effect of digitalization on enterprises, reliable data is imperative, and the need to resort to a dynamic data collection tool at a time when countries in the region are in a state of flux cannot be overstated. The Economic Research Forum (ERF) led The Survey of Enterprises' Digitization to provide data for researchers and policy makers on the impact of digitalization on enterprises' performance.
The Survey of Enterprises' Digitization is conducted over two phases in each of the following countries: Jordan, Morocco, and Egypt. The survey covers access to, usage of, and affordability of internet, and/or mobile services, online payments, access to e-commerce platform, measures of transport infrastructure (e.g. road density, logistic performance), measures of human capital (e.g. share of skilled labor or education level of workers), and other key regional characteristics (e.g. population density, income level, urbanization rate...). The main questions to be answered through this survey are: What are the effects of the affordability of high-speed internet and online payment on firm-level productivity and employment? How does the impact of digitalization vary across characterized firms and across the counties of study?
The Survey of Enterprises' Digitization is a wide-ranging, nationally representative cross-sectional survey for each country. The collection of this dataset began in April 2022 and phase two was completed in August 2022, and was harmonized by the Economic Research Forum (ERF).
The harmonization was designed to create comparable data that can facilitate cross-country and comparative research between three Arab countries (Morocco, Egypt, and Jordan). All The Survey of Enterprises' Digitization in MENA region surveys incorporate similar survey designs, with data on enterprises within Arab countries (Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco).
Kind of Data
Sample Survey Data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
V1: Version 1 of the Combined Survey of Enterprises' Digitization prepared for public dissemination.
The Combined Survey of Enterprises' Digitization includes a questionnaire that covers:
1. Access to, usage of, and affordability of internet and/or mobile services
2. Access to, usage of, and affordability of online payment
3. Access to e-commerce platform
4. Measures of transport infrastructure (e.g. road density, logistical performance)
5. Measures of human capital (e.g. share of skilled labor or education level of workers)
6. Other key enterprise' characteristics (e.g. location, economic activity, size, ownership,…)
The target population of the surveys was Enterprises of all sizes that started business operations before 2022.
Producers and sponsors
Economics Research Forum
Samples were designed to represent E-firms and non-E-firms. E-firms were defined as businesses that used the internet during the last month before the interview date to conduct transactions, such as buying and/or selling of goods or services. Samples were designed to complete 250 interviews with E-firms and 500 interviews with non-E-firms.
Since no data were available about the proportion of E-firms in any of the study countries, a two-phase sampling design were used. Data from the first phase was used to guide the sampling procedures in the second phase to achieve the target sample size, especially for E-firms.
For Egypt: a systematic sample of 9,087 businesses were selected in Phase 1. To align the sample distribution across business sectors with the distribution in the frame distribution, the selection was done after sorting the frame according to the business sectors. The sample of Phase 1 composed of two samples: main sample of 5,066 businesses and a supplement sample of 4,021 businesses. Businesses with website available on Yellow Pages (YP) were oversampled to increase the chance of finding E-firms. This has been accounted for during the weight calculation to retrieve the actual distribution in YP frame. In Phase 2, a systematic sample of 18,901 businesses were selected from businesses with website available on Yellow Pages.
For Jordan: a stratified sample of 3,134 businesses were selected in Phase 1. The sample was stratified according to 17 business sectors. The sample was selected in two stages; in the first stage, 316 pages were selected from the Kinz website, where the selected pages were proportionally distributed to the distribution of all pages by business sector. In the second stage, all businesses in selected pages were contacted. In average, there are 10 businesses per page. In Phase 2, a stratified sample of 3,160 businesses were selected using the same approach used in Phase 1.
For Morocco: a stratified sample of 9,099 businesses were selected in Phase 1. The sample was stratified according to three main geographic regions of Morocco, Casa-Rabat, North, and South. The sample of Phase 1 composed of two samples: main sample of 4,388 businesses and a supplement sample of 4,711 businesses. In the two samples, 158 pages were selected for each sample, and 28-30 businesses were contacted from each page. In Phase 2, a stratified sample of 25,120 businesses were selected in two stages, where 314 pages were selected in the first stage, and about 80 businesses were contacted per each selected page.
Inverse probability weighting was undertaken to account for the sampling strategy and non-response. Since non-E-firms were not eligible for interviews in Phase 2, the weight was post-stratified to retrieve the actual percentage distribution of E-firms and non-E-firms in the population. The weighted distribution from Phase 1 was used for post-stratification.
Note: there are more details on the weights and sampling in the “Digitalization in MENA _Sampling design and weighting” document in the documentation tab.
Dates of Data Collection
Phase 1- Egypt
Phase 2 - Egypt
Phase 1- Jordan
Phase 2- Jordan
Phase 1- Morocco
Phase 2- Morocco
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
PHI Field & Tab
The enterprise questionnaire is carried out to understand the impact of digitalization on the productivity of the firm. It includes enterprise's characteristics, questions on access to and usage of Internet to identify e-firms, disruptions to supply chains (for inputs and outputs), online transactions, employment, and firm's productivity.
Note: The questionnaire can be seen in the documentation materials tab.
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF) - 21 Al-Sad Al-Aaly St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt
To access the micro-data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement. The data will be used only for scholarly, research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
The users should cite the Economic Research Forum as follows:
"OAMDI, 2022. Survey of Enterprises' Digitization (SED), http://www.erfdataportal.com/index.php/catalog. Version 1.0 of the licensed data files; Combined -SED. Egypt: Economic Research Forum (ERF)."
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Economic Research Forum has granted the researcher access to relevant data following exhaustive efforts to protect the confidentiality of individual data. The researcher is solely responsible for any analysis or conclusions drawn from available data.