The NCLS aims to estimate the number and percentage of working children from 5 to 17 years of age at the national level and at the level of various geographic regions of Egypt, and to determine the demographic and economic characteristics of these children and their families. The survey also aims to assess the conditions under which child work takes place in Egypt and how work interacts with the children's education, health, and general development. The survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of 33,000 households with children aged 5-17 drawn from 1500 PSUs from the CAPMAS Master Sample of one million households.
The National Child Labour Survey (NCLS) for Egypt carried out in April/May 2010. The survey was carried out by CAPMAS with the financial and technical assistance of the ILO's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) trough its Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC).
The Egypt NCLS was carried out on a design sample of 30,000 households with children aged 5 to 17, with 30,143 households successfully interviewed. The sample was drawn from a master sample of about 1 million households developed by CAPMAS in early 2010, which included information about which households have children between the ages of 5 and 17 and about the schooling status of these children. The information is generated through interviews with heads of households and children aged 5-17.
The overall objective of NCLS in Egypt is to generate quantitative and qualitative data on labour market and children’s activities, including schooling, economic and non-economic activities.
The NCLS specifically aims at:
a- Collecting information on the character, nature, scale and causes of child labour in Egypt; and determining the conditions of work and their effects on the health, education and
normal development of working children.
b- Strengthening CAPMAS capacity to collect quantitative information critical for planning actions against child labour in Egypt
c- Establishing a quantitative information system (database) on child labour that will be updated on a regular basis as new information becomes available through additional
surveys and administrative records.
d- Providing a comprehensive analysis of the state of working children in Egypt by identifying priority groups and patterns and analyzing working conditions and their effects on children in order to produce inputs towards developing policies and action programs for child labour elimination.
e- Producing, presenting and disseminating to the Government, employers’ and workers’ organization, NGO’s and the general public, a comprehensive National Report on Child
Labour in Egypt giving the highlights of the statistical findings and results of in-depth analysis, thereby enhancing the knowledge and understanding required to promote sustainable, multi-disciplinary campaign against child labour involves all relevant key stakeholders.
f- Integrating the Egyptian data into the ILO’s child labour database.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
2- Child aged (5-17) years.
Version 1: A version of Egypt_NCLS_2016 data prepared by Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), International Labour Organization (ILO) and the ERF for dissemination
*The topics covered at Adult Questionnaire the following:
1- Household Composition and Characteristics for All Household Members
2- Educational Attainment for All Household Members aged 5 and above
3- Current Economic Activity Status of All Household Members (5 and above) during the reference week
4- Usual Employment Status of All Household Members (5 and above) during the last 12 months
5- Household Tasks: About Children (5-17) ONLY
6- Perceptions/Observations of Parents/Guardians about working children (5-17)
* The topics covered at Household Questionnaire the following:
1- Housing and Household Characteristics
2- Household Socio-Economic Status
* The topics covered at Child Questionnaire the following:
1- Educational Attainment of All Children (5-17)
2- Current Economic Activities Status of All Children (5-17)
3- Health and Safety Issues about working children (5-17)
4- Household Tasks of Children (5-17)
The survey covered a national sample of households and selected children aged (5-17) years
Producers and sponsors
International Labour Organization
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour
International Labour Organization
The 2010 Egypt CLS was based on a designed sample of 30,000 households with children between the ages of 5-17 years. The sample was disproportionally allocated over seven strata: 1- Urban Governorates; 2-Urban Lower Egypt; 3-Urban Upper Egypt; 4-Urban Frontier Governorates; 5-Rural Lower Egypt; 6-Rural Upper Egypt; and 7-Rural Frontier Governorates. A Master Sample developed by CAPMAS in early 2010 was used to select the CLS sample. In order to prepare the Master Sample, information was collected to allow for the explicit stratification of Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) according to the number of households with potential working children (i.e. those actually working plus those not attending school). PSUs with larger numbers of households with potential working children were over-sampled so as to facilitate the detection of a sizable number of working children by the survey.
The CLS sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 1,500 PSUs were selected from the Master Sample using equal probability sampling. In the second stage, 22 households were selected from each of the selected PSUs. Because the Master Sample was developed shortly (only 2 months) before the CLS was fielded, there was no need to update the household lists of the sample PSUs used to select the household sample.
The final sampling rate is composed of four components: 1- The sampling rate of the Master Sample, selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS); 2- The sampling rate of the first sampling stage of the CLS, selected using equal probability, 3- The sampling rate of the final (household) stage of the CLS, also selected using equal probability; and 4- The non-response adjustment rate.
Ensuring that the sample estimates from the CLS 2010 are representative of the survey population required multiplying the data by a sampling weight, or expansion factor. The basic weight for each sample household is equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage).
The basic sampling weight, or expansion factor, was calculated as the inverse of the probability of selection.
Means and proportions are two types of ratios relevant to clustered designs. With means, a variable Y, in the denominator of the ratio, is defined as equal to 1 for each element so that the denominator is the sum of the weights. With proportions, the variable Y in the denominator is also defined as equal to 1 for all elements, and the variable X in the numerator is binomial and is defined as equal to either 0 or 1, depending on the absence or presence, respectively, of a specified attribute in the observed element.
Note: there are more details on the weights and sampling at the “Results of the 2010 National Child Labour Survey” document in the documentation tab.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics
The questionnaire of the NCLS was modelled after a questionnaire developed by ILO as part of its Statistical Information and Monitoring Program on Child Labour (SIMPOC), and consists of three main modules:
(i) The Adult Questionnaire,
(ii) The Household Characteristics Questionnaire,
(iii) The Child Questionnaire.
The adult questionnaire was administered to the most knowledgeable person in the household and includes a household roster covering the basic demographic characteristics of all household members and more detailed questions relating to the education experience of members ages 5 and older and the employment characteristics in a short reference period of one week and a long reference period of one year. The adult questionnaire also inquires about the participation of children 5-17 in unpaid household services and parental attitudes about children’s work.
The household characteristics questionnaire is also administered to the most knowledgeable individual and includes questions about housing characteristics, access to services, ownership of durable goods, livestock and land. It also inquires about any shocks the household may have been exposed to in the past twelve months and the coping mechanisms the household adopted in the face of these shocks. The Child Questionnaire was administered to children 5-17 themselves and includes questions relating to their schooling and vocational training experience as well as their employment experience in the past week and their participation in unpaid household services.
The main topic addressed in the Child Questionnaire that has no direct counterpart in the Adult Questionnaire relates to the health and safety conditions of children’s work, a subject that is crucial in distinguishing between children’s permissible work and child labour.
Number of questions relating to children’s education and employment are repeated in the adult and child questionnaires. This is done deliberately to control for differences in response, whether intentional or unintentional, between adults and children.
Interviewers were instructed to interview children privately if possible, but this was not also the case. The analysis of children’s work, schooling, and engagement in unpaid household services relies primarily on information from the adult questionnaire, but where relevant we compare across child and adult responses to highlight possible differences. The main exception, as mentioned above, is with regards to children’s working conditions, where the information is obtained exclusively from the child questionnaire.
Note: The questionnaire can be seen in the documentation materials tab.
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Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
OAMDI, 2021. National Child Labour Survey (NCLS), http://www.erfdataportal.com/index.php/catalog. Version 1.0 of Licensed Data Files; Egypt-NCLS 2010- Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). Egypt: Economic Research Forum (ERF).
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DDI Document ID
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics