Study on the Constraints Facing the Development of Micro and Small Enterprises, 2014
The Constraints Facing the Development of MSEs [MSEs/CDMSE]
This survey field data was collected, from rural governorates in Egypt, on Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in the context of a project, funded by ERF, on "The Nexus between Informal Credit and Informal Labor for MSEs in Egypt".
MSEs in Egypt still rely heavily on informal credit. They also rely on informal labor to a great extent. In the meantime, MSEs' access to formal finance has been facing increasing restrictions, due to adopting more cautious lending strategies by both public and private banks.
This project aims, through the collected dataset, at examining the relationship between informal credit and the formalization of MSEs, in general, and, in particular, their employment characteristics. To do that, it attempts to find out what effect informal credit has on the performance, risk and return to capital of MSEs and how it affects the employment profile and the use of informal labor. It also looks into whether informal credit provides a disincentive for the formalization of MSEs and whether the sources of informal credit have different effects on the formalization of MSEs.or to a great extent.
The survey was tested in several governorates, but was eventually implemented in the Gharbeya and Bani Suef governorates. Administering the survey was often interrupted because of security reasons.
It is also worth noting that this survey is not weighted.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 1.0: A version of the raw data prepared for dissemination
The Economic Research Forum has collected this dataset and releases it for dissemination in both SPSS and STATA formats.
For a selected sample of MSEs in both Gharbeya and Bani Suef governorates; the survey provides data on:
- Project basic information
- Demographic information of the project owner
- Project description
- Sources of project financing
- Technical support for the project
- Project labor
- Project expenditures
- Project revenues
- Constraints facing the project
- Other information on the owner/employer and his/her opinions
- Future expectations
The survey was implemented in the Gharbeya and Bani Suef governorates.
Producers and sponsors
Economic Research Forum
A two-stage sampling procedure was adopted.
In the first stage, a convenience sampling was used to choose localities (governorates and cities/towns). Convenience sampling is a non-probability
sampling technique that is used by the researcher because the sample is easily accessible. The main weakness of convenience sampling is that the sample could be biased and does not represent the whole population. However despite this weakness, real world restrictions may justify using convenience sampling. One of these restrictions is the fact that the research emphasis is on hidden population. Hidden population means that the population cannot be studied using standard sampling methods due to lacking of a sampling frame, which is a list of all population members.
MSEs were considered a hidden population because, at the time, there was no available data on the micro and small enterprises in Egypt.
Accordingly, convenience sampling was used and Tanta was chosen because it meets specific practical standards, for instance, ease of access and geographical closeness.
In the second stage, a simple random sampling was used to choose the establishments from these localities. Simple random sampling means that every element of the population has equal opportunity to be selected in the sample. The researchers walked the streets and approached the enterprises randomly for an onsite interview using the questionnaire. Different types of enterprises with different economic activities were targeted to construct a sample that embraced an appropriate range and to allow a better representation of the wider population.
Two economic criteria were set to choose the establishments. The first criterion was the nature of the activity whether it was agricultural, manufacturing, commercial or a services enterprise. The second criterion was the number of workers in each establishment. If the establishment has up to 5 workers, we consider it a micro enterprise while the establishment that has between 6 to 20 workers is considered to be small enterprise.
Data is not weighted
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
After constructing the survey and testing it, four teams of surveyors were trained (two for each governorate); each consists of 2-4 surveyors, in addition to the team leader, auditors and quality controllers. The survey was comprehensive and took around an hour to administer. Eventually 228 valid surveys from the urban areas in Tanta, capital of Gharbiya Governorate, and 218 from Bani Suef City, capital of Bani Suef Governorate, were collected.
The collected data is elementary and may be complemented at a larger and more widespread scale.
Economic Research Forum
One questionnaire form, in both Arabic and English, consisting of 12 Parts was designed to collect the survey data.
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF) - 21 Al-Sad Al-Aaly St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt
To access the micro data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement.
The data will be used only for scholarly, research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
The users should cite the Economic Research Forum (ERF) as follows:
OAMDI, 2016. Study on the Constraints Facing the Development of Micro and Small Enterprises, http://erf.org.eg/data-portal/. Version 1.0 of Licensed Data Files; Egypt CDMSE 2014. Egypt: Economic Research Forum (ERF).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Economic Research Forum has granted the researcher access to relevant data following exhaustive efforts to protect the confidentiality of individual data. The researcher is solely responsible for any analysis or conclusions drawn from available data.