Household Income, Expenditure, and Consumption Survey, HIECS 2012/2013
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
The first survey of income and expenditure, planned to be a pilot one, was undertaken in 1955. It was planned and carried out by the Committee of Statistic in three villages of Giza governorate on a sample of 750 households where the total sampling frame in this area was 4000 households.
In 1958/59, the first national survey was conducted in all governorates of Egypt on a sample of 6376 households distributed between urban and rural areas with a percentage of 51.5% and 48.5% respectively. All sample households were observed for the entire survey period (12 month).
In 1964/65, the second survey was conducted on a sample of 13818 households allocated between urban and rural areas such as 67.6% for urban and 32.4%for rural households. With the aim of reducing the burden on surveyed households, the whole sample was divided into four sub-samples where households of each sub-sample were observed for only three consecutive months.
In 1974/75, the third survey was carried out on a sample of 11995 households allocated between urban and rural areas in a similar way as the second survey. Like the second survey, households were observed only for three successive months.
In 1981/82, the fourth survey was conducted on a sample of 17000 households distributed equally between urban and rural areas. A new observation methodology, combing fixed and changeable observation of surveyed households, has been applied. A sub- sample of 1000 households were observed all over the survey period (12 months) while the remaining 16000 households were observed on a changeable basis.
In 1990/91, the name of household budgetary survey changed to income, expenditure and consumption survey. Under the new name, the fifth survey was conducted on a sample of 15000 households distributed between urban and rural areas with the percentage of 60% for urban and 40% for rural. The entire sample was divided into 12 sub-samples, each were observed for only one month.
In 1995/96, the sixth survey was conducted on a sample of 15090 households allocated between urban and rural areas such as 45.1% in urban and 54.9% in rural. The same observation scheme of the previous survey was applied, i.e., households were observed for one month only.
In 1999/2000, the seventh survey was conducted on a sample of 48000 households (4000 household monthly) distributed between urban and rural areas with the percentage of 60% for urban and 40% for rural.(households were observed for one month only).
In 2004/2005, the eighth survey was conducted on a sample of 48000 households (4000 households monthly) distributed in urban and rural areas with the percentage of 46.4% for urban and 53.6% rural (households were observed for one month only).
In 2008/2009 the ninth in the series was conducted on a sample of 48658 households (2000 households every 15 days) distributed between urban and rural areas with the percentage of 47.2% for urban and 52.8% rural.(households were observed every 15 days).
In 2010/2011, the tenth survey was conducted on a sample of 26.5 thousand households, out of which 16.5 thousands were new households and 10 thousands were panel households. 1100 household were collected every 15 days distributed between urban and rural areas with the percentage of 47.1% for urban and 52.9% rural (surveyed households were changed every 15 days).
The current survey is the eleventh survey that was carried out in 2012/2013 on a sample of 24863 households, out of which 16094 thousands were new households and 8769 thousands were panel households. 1036 household were collected every 15 days distributed between urban and rural areas with the percentage of 45.4% for urban and 54.6% rural (surveyed households were changed every 15 days).
THE CLEANED AND HARMONIZED VERSION OF THE SURVEY DATA PRODUCED AND PUBLISHED BY THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM REPRESENTS 50% OF THE ORIGINAL SURVEY DATA COLLECTED BY THE CENTRAL AGENCY FOR PUBLIC MOBILIZATION AND STATISTICS (CAPMAS)
The Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Survey (HIECS) is of great importance among other household surveys conducted by statistical agencies in various countries around the world. This survey provides a large amount of data to rely on in measuring the living standards of households and individuals, as well as establishing databases that serve in measuring poverty, designing social assistance programs, and providing necessary weights to compile consumer price indices, considered to be an important indicator to assess inflation.
The First Survey that covered all the country governorates was carried out in 1958/1959 followed by a long series of similar surveys . The current survey, HIECS 2012/2013, is the eleventh in this long series.
Starting 2008/2009, Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Surveys were conducted each two years instead of five years. this would enable better tracking of the rapid changes in the level of the living standards of the Egyptian households.
CAPMAS started in 2010/2011 to follow a panel sample of around 40% of the total household sample size. The current survey is the second one to follow a panel sample. This procedure will provide the necessary data to extract accurate indicators on the status of the society.
The CAPMAS also is pleased to disseminate the results of this survey to policy makers, researchers and scholarly to help in policy making and conducting development related researches and studies
The survey main objectives are:
- To identify expenditure levels and patterns of population as well as socio- economic and demographic differentials.
- To measure average household and per-capita expenditure for various expenditure items along with socio-economic correlates.
- To Measure the change in living standards and expenditure patterns and behavior for the individuals and households in the panel sample, previously surveyed in 2008/2009, for the first time during 12 months representing the survey period.
- To define percentage distribution of expenditure for various items used in compiling consumer price indices which is considered important indicator for measuring inflation.
- To estimate the quantities, values of commodities and services consumed by households during the survey period to determine the levels of consumption and estimate the current demand which is important to predict future demands.
- To define average household and per-capita income from different sources.
- To provide data necessary to measure standard of living for households and individuals. Poverty analysis and setting up a basis for social welfare assistance are highly dependent on the results of this survey.
- To provide essential data to measure elasticity which reflects the percentage change in expenditure for various commodity and service groups against the percentage change in total expenditure for the purpose of predicting the levels of expenditure and consumption for different commodity and service items in urban and rural areas.
- To provide data essential for comparing change in expenditure against change in income to measure income elasticity of expenditure.
- To study the relationships between demographic, geographical, housing characteristics of households and their income.
- To provide data necessary for national accounts especially in compiling inputs and outputs tables.
- To identify consumers behavior changes among socio-economic groups in urban and rural areas.
- To identify per capita food consumption and its main components of calories, proteins and fats according to its nutrition components and the levels of expenditure in both urban and rural areas.
- To identify the value of expenditure for food according to its sources, either from household production or not, in addition to household expenditure for non-food commodities and services.
- To identify distribution of households according to the possession of some appliances and equipments such as (cars, satellites, mobiles ,…etc) in urban and rural areas that enables measuring household wealth index.
- To identify the percentage distribution of income earners according to some background variables such as housing conditions, size of household and characteristics of head of household.
- To provide a time series of the most important data related to dominant standard of living from economic and social perspective. This will enable conducting comparisons based on the results of these time series. In addition to, the possibility of performing geographical comparisons.
Compared to previous surveys, the current survey experienced certain peculiarities, among which :
1- The total sample of the current survey (24.9 thousand households) is divided into two sections:
a- A new sample of 16.1 thousand households. This sample was used to study the geographic differences between urban governorates, urban and rural areas, and frontier governorates as well as other discrepancies related to households characteristics and household size, head of the household's education status, ....... etc.
b- A panel sample of 2008/2009 survey data of around 8.8 thousand households was selected to accurately study the changes that may have occurred in the households' living standards over the period between the two surveys and over time in the future since CAPMAS will continue to collect panel data for HIECS in the coming years.
2- Some additional questions that showed to be important based on previous surveys results, were added to the survey questionnaire, such as:
a- The extent of health services provided to monitor the level of services available in the Egyptian society. By collecting information on the in-kind transfers, the household received during the year; in order to monitor the assistance the household received from different sources government, association,..etc.
b- Identifying the main outlet of fabrics, clothes and footwear to determine the level of living standards of the household.
3- Quality control procedures especially for fieldwork are increased, to ensure data accuracy and avoid any errors in suitable time, as well as taking all the necessary measures to guarantee that mistakes are not repeated, with the application of the principle of reward and punishment.
The raw survey data provided by the Statistical Agency were cleaned and harmonized by the Economic Research Forum, in the context of a major project that started in 2009. During which extensive efforts have been exerted to acquire, clean, harmonize, preserve and disseminate micro data of existing household surveys in several Arab countries.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
V1.0: A cleaned and a harmonized version of the survey dataset, produced by the Economic Research Forum for dissemination.
V2.0: A cleaned and a harmonized version of the survey dataset, including all variables in V1.0 in addition to a number of new/detailed-composite coded version of the variables considered essential on the household as well as the individual level, produced by the Economic Research Forum for dissemination.
All documentation available for the original survey provided by the Statistical Agency, and for the harmonized datasets produced by the Economic Research Forum, has been published, along with a copy of all international classifications of expenditures, occupations and economic activities used during the harmonization process.
However, as far as the datasets are concerned, the Economic Research Forum produces and releases only the harmonized versions in both SPSS and STATA formats.
Household: Includes geographic, social, and economic characteristics of households, namely, household composition, dwelling characteristics, ownership of assets indicators, heads' and spouses' characteristics, annual household expenditure and income.
Individual: Includes demographic, migration, education, labor and health characteristics, as well as annual income for household members identified as earners. Moreover, fathers' and mothers' characteristics are generated for household members if possible.
Covering a sample of urban and rural areas in all the governorates.
The survey covered a national sample of households and all individuals permanently residing in surveyed households.
Producers and sponsors
Economic Research Forum
Central Agency For Public Mobilization & Statistics
THE CLEANED AND HARMONIZED VERSION OF THE SURVEY DATA PRODUCED AND PUBLISHED BY THE ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM REPRESENTS 50% OF THE ORIGINAL SURVEY DATA COLLECTED BY THE CENTRAL AGENCY FOR PUBLIC MOBILIZATION AND STATISTICS (CAPMAS)
The sample of HIECS 2012/2013 is a self-weighted two-stage stratified cluster sample, of around 24.9 households. The main elements of the sampling design are described in the following.
1- Sample Size
The sample has been proportionally distributed on the governorate level between urban and rural areas, in order to make the sample representative even for small governorates.
Thus, a sample of about 24863 households has been considered, and was distributed between urban and rural with the percentages of 45.4 % and 54.6, respectively.
This sample is divided into two parts:
a- A new sample of 16094 households selected from main enumeration areas.
b- A panel sample of 8769 households (selected from HIECS 2010/2011 and the preceding survey in 2008/2009).
2- Cluster size
The cluster size in the previous survey has been decreased compared to older surveys since large cluster sizes previously used were found to be too large to yield accepted design effect estimates (DEFT).
As a result, it has been decided to use a cluster size of only 8 households (In HIECS 2011/2012 a cluster size of 16 households was used).
While the cluster size for the panel sample was 4 households.
3- Core Sample
The core sample is the master sample of any household sample required to be pulled for the purpose of studying the properties of individuals and families. It is a large sample and distributed on urban and rural areas of all governorates. It is a representative sample for the individual characteristics of the Egyptian society.
This sample was implemented in January 2012 and its size reached more than 1 million household (1004800 household) selected from 5024 enumeration areas distributed on all governorates (urban/rural) proportionally with the sample size (the enumeration area size is around 200 households).
The core sample is the sampling frame from which the samples for the surveys conducted by CAPMAS are pulled, such as the Labor Force Surveys, Income, Expenditure And Consumption Survey, Household Urban Migration Survey, ...etc, in addition to other samples that may be required for outsources.
New Households Sample
1000 sample areas were selected across all governorates (urban/rural) using a proportional technique with the sample size. The number required for each governorate (urban/rural) was selected from the enumeration areas of the core sample using a systematic sampling technique.
A more detailed description of the different sampling stages and allocation of sample across governorates is provided in the Methodology document available among external resources in Arabic.
For the new sample, the response rate was 93.6% (88.6% in urban areas and 97.9% in rural areas).
Response rates on the governorate level at each sampling stage are presented in the methodology document attached to the documentation materials published in Arabic.
In order for the sample estimates for the HIECS to be representative of the population, it is necessary to multiply the data by a sampling weight, or expansion factor. The basic weight for each sample household would be equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage).
The HIECS sample is approximately self-weighting at national level and strictly self-weighting at the governorate level, it should be easy to attach a weight to each sample household record in the computer files, and the tabulation programs can weight the data automatically. The sampling probabilities at each stage of selection will be maintained in an Excel spreadsheet so that the overall probability and corresponding weight can be calculated for each sample cluster.
The procedures for calculating the weights and variances are described in details in the methodology technical document attached to the documentation materials published in Arabic.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The field staff was selected from among the efficient experienced persons working in CAPMAS and new graduates specially females who live in the survey sampled aread.
Intensive training program for supervisors was conducted at CAPMAS in Cairo and locally in governorates for interviewers and field editors.
Supervision program was implemented (each 15 days) in all governorates to check the field work to overcome the fieldwork problems.
Data were collected by using personal interview method for household in dwelling and it had been obtained from the head of household or wife or any eligible person in case of their absence.
The Fieldwork took place during the period of 1/7/2012 to 30/6/2013
Duties and responsibilities of all levels of field staff (281 interviewer, 150 field editor and 31 supervisor) were defined to insure the accuracy and timing. These are outlined next:
Every one of them was responsible for data collection of five households during 15 days with five visits as follows:
(1) First visit
It started before the survey period by one or two days. Its purpose is to ensure the existence of the household, meet the head of household, present herself and her CAPMAS card to him. She also gives the household a simple idea about the survey (its objectives, importance and required data especially expenditure and consumption data).
Showing households the methods of recording their daily data and knowing the suitable time for visiting them. Also delivering the diary book to the household.
In case of the household refusal of cooperating with the interviewer, she has to convince them and if she failed, she must inform her supervisor.
(2) Second visit
This visit is made in the middle of the first week of the survey period and it includes the following:
Editing the recorded data of expenditure and consumption in the diary book by the household.
Completing the data of the third table related with the quantity and value of clothing and footwear that the household obtained and table four related to household expenditure on housing, water, electricity, gas, and other fuel. In addition to, the Fifth table that is related to household expenditure on furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance of the house.
(3) Third visits
It is the same as the previous visit but made in the second part of the first week. In addition to checking household recording of expenditure, the interviewer have to complete the following tables:
The Sixth table : related to household expenditure on health.
The Seventh table: related to household expenditure on transportation.
The Eighth table : related to household expenditure on communication.
The Ninth table : related to household expenditure on recreation and cultural services.
The Tenth table : related to household expenditure on education.
(4) Fourth visit
This visit was in the first part of second week and it includes the following:
Recording or editing the recorded data of expenditure and consumption during the first week and following up recording data of expenditure outside the home on catering services.
Completing these tables:
The Second table related to actual household consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco and narcotics.
The Eleventh table related to household consumption on restaurants, coffees and hotels
The Twelfth table related to household expenditure on miscellaneous goods and services
Completing the thirteenth table related to transfer payments during the year ended with survey period.
(5) Fifth visit
It is made in the beginning of the days following the survey period. It includes the following:.
Completing the missing data.
Filling down the income data for individuals having income in the household except servants.
The Editor was responsible for checking the work of the interviewers working immediately under his guidance.
They were responsible for financial and technical aspects of all the survey stages especially:
Selecting interviewers (females) and editors (males) and send the list of their names to the administration of survey.
Attending the central training in Cairo.
Training the interviewers on field work .
Data Collection Notes
The reference period over which data was collected varies according to the type of data item as follows:
15 days: for expenditure on food and beverages.
Monthly: for expenditure on alcoholic beverages, tobacco and narcotics, housing and its accessories goods and services for routine household maintenance, health, operation of personal transport equipments, transport services, restaurants and hotels, personal care and other services n.e.c.
Quarterly: for expenditure on health, Communication.
Annually: for expenditure on clothing and footwear, housing and its accessories, furnishings, household equipments and routine maintenance of the house, health, transport, communication, recreation and culture, education, restaurants and hotels and miscellaneous goods and services.
It is worth noting that in some cases the groups of commodities or services include more than one period such as health which has monthly, quarterly and annually items, on which the expenditure ends by the end of the survey period, depending upon the consumption frequency of these items.
Central Agency For Public Mobilization & Statistics
Three different questionnaires have been designed as following:
1- Expenditure and Consumption Questionnaire.
2- Diary Questionnaire (Assisting questionnaire).
3- Income Questionnaire.
In designing the questionnaires of expenditure, consumption and income, we were taking into our consideration the following:
- Using the recent concepts and definitions of International Labor Organization approved in the International Convention of Labor Statisticians held in Geneva, 2003.
- Using the recent Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (COICOP).
- Using more than one approach of expenditure measurement to serve many purposes of the survey.
A brief description of each questionnaire is given next:
1- Expenditure and Consumption Questionnaire
This questionnaire comprises 14 tables in addition to identification and geographic data of household on the cover page.
The questionnaire is divided into two main sections.
Section one: Household schedule and other information, it includes:
- Demographic characteristics and basic data for all household individuals consisting of 25 questions for every person.
- Members of household who are currently working abroad.
- The household ration card.
- The main outlets that provide food and beverage.
- Domestic and foreign tourism.
- The housing conditions including 16 questions.
- Household ownership of means of transportation, communication and domestic appliances.
- Date of purchase, status at purchase, purchase value and current imputed value of the
household possessed appliances and means of transportation.
- The Duration since the household was established
- The main outlet that provides fabrics, clothes and footwear.
-This section includes some questions which help to define the social and economic level of households which in turn, help interviewers to check the plausibility of expenditure, consumption and income data.
Section two: Expenditure and consumption data It includes 14 tables as follows:
1- The quantity and value of food and beverages commodities actually consumed.
2- The quantity and value of the actual consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco and narcotics.
3- The quantity and value of the clothing and footwear.
4- The household expenditure on housing.
5- The household expenditure on furnishings, household equipment and routine maintenance of the house.
6- The household expenditure on health care services.
7- The household expenditure on transportation.
8- The household expenditure on communication.
9- The household expenditure on recreation and culture
10- The household expenditure on education.
11- The household expenditure at restaurants and hotels.
12- The household expenditure on miscellaneous goods and services.
13- Transfer payments.
14- Total annual household expenditure (prepared in office)
The tables from 1 to 13 include all types of commodities and services (781 Items), 47 Sub-group and 12 Main groups in addition to transfer payments.
This questionnaire has been designed to be pre-coded for all expenditure items and household characteristics, to avoid possible coding mistakes, except for the occupation and industry. Those were coded at the office following the International classifications for occupation and industry. On the questionnaire cover, geographic information were coded at the office, as well, following the Administrative Classification.
The questionnaire was designed to cover different reference periods for expenditure data, since they differ based on the expenditure nature. The reference period agreed upon for regular consumption of commodities such as those related to food and beverage is two weeks. Alcoholic beverages and Tobacco are collected for a reference of one month ending by the end of the survey period. Commodities and services consumed on a semi-regular basis are collected for a reference of 3 month while commodities and services consumed less regularly are collected on annual basis, ending by the end of the survey period.
The total number of items increased to 781 commodity and service compared to 778 in 2010/2011 survey.
2 - Diary Questionnaire (Assisting questionnaire)
The assisting questionnaire has been prepared to help households recording - on a daily basis- the quantity and value of what have been consumed of food and beverages during the reference period (15 days).
Therefore, this questionnaire is considered the main source of expenditure data on food and beverage, and was designed in a very simple form to facilitate using it by the surveyed household and the interviewers during their frequent visits to the household.
Due to the importance of such a questionnaire, the households are required to record their expenses daily, and the interviewers are instructed to check what households have recorded during their 6 visits to the household during the survey period. In case of the inability of some households to record their daily expenditure, the interviewer has to do so.
The questionnaire includes:
a- Letter addressed to the head of household to inform him/her about the importance of survey so that his/her cooperation may be stimulated.
b- Instructions of data recording for households and interviewers.
c- A group of modules to record daily consumption of household as follows:
Module (A): Includes twenty pages to record the daily consumed quantity and value of food and beverages, during the survey period. Each pages consists of 4 columns and each column is used to register the data of one good, including:
Date, source of commodity, quantity and value.
Module (B): Includes eight pages to record the value of expenditure for meals and tobacco outside the house, in addition to the value of expenditure for food prepared outside the house and consumed inside the house.
Module (C1): Includes 12 pages to record the total of quantity and value of consumed food and beverages according to source, either from household production or in-kind transfer, during the survey period using the data recorded in Module (A).
Module (C2): Includes 6 pages to record the total of quantity and value of actually consumed food and beverages according to source, either from household production or in-kind transfer, during the survey period using the data recorded in Module (A).
Module (D): Includes two pages to record total expenditure on food and beverages consumed outside home during the survey period using the data recorded in Module (B).
3- Income questionnaire
It includes annual household income data according to income sources (excluding irregular incomes).
It consists of several tables; each is designated to a specific income source. These sources are:
- Wages and salaries for wage/salary for earners among household members.
- Self-employed income from agriculture projects.
- Self-employed income from non Agriculture projects.
- Financial properties such as stocks, bonds, deposits and investment certificates.
- Non- financial properties such as agriculture or non-agriculture land and rented to others properties.
- Imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings.
- Received cash and in kind transfers
It is one of the main stages of the survey. It started as soon as the questionnaires were received from the field and accomplished by selected work groups. It includes:
a- Editing of coverage and completeness
b- Editing of consistency
c- Arithmetic editing of quantities and values.
Specialized staff has coded the data of economic activity, occupation and geographical identification.
Data Processing and preparing final results
It included machine data entry, data validation and tabulation and preparing final survey volumes.
- The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) is used to clean and harmonize the datasets.
- The harmonization process starts with cleaning all raw data files received from the Statistical Agency.
- Cleaned data files are then all merged to produce one data file on the individual level containing all variables subject to harmonization.
- A country-specific program is generated for each dataset to generate/compute /recode/rename/format/label harmonized variables.
- A post-harmonization cleaning process is then conducted on the data.
- Harmonized data is saved on the household as well as the individual level, in SPSS and converted to STATA format.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sampling error of major survey estimates has been derived using the Ultimate Cluster Method as applied in the CENVAR Module of the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) Package. In addition to the estimate of sampling error, the output includes estimates of coefficient of variation, design effect (DEFF) and 95% confidence intervals.
Estimates of sampling errors for the survey most important results are presented in table (1) to table (18) in appendix (B) in the methodology document attached to the documentation material published in Arabic.
Quality Control Procedures included:
1- Procedures implemented by the survey division
1- Applying the recent international recommendations of different concepts and definitions of income and expenditure considering maintaining the consistency with the previous surveys in order to compare and study the changes in pertinent indicators.
2- Evaluating the quality of data in all different Implementation stages to avoid or minimize errors to the lowest extent possible through:
Implementing field editing after finishing data collection for households in governorates to avoid any errors in suitable time.
Setting up a program for the Survey Technical Committee Members and survey staff for visiting fieldwork in all governorates (each 15 days) to solve any problem in the proper time.
For the purpose of quality assurance, tables were generated for each survey round where internal consistency checks were performed to study the plausibility of consistency of data collected.
2- Procedures implemented by the quality control general division
A- It was put into consideration during the survey implementation to assign the quality control general division a core role in controlling the quality of the fieldwork to ensure data accuracy and avoid any errors in suitable time, as well as taking all the necessary measures to guarantee that mistakes are not repeated, with the application of the principle of reward and punishment, and announce the results to all those working in the survey.
B- 24 quality control rounds (2 rounds weekly) covering all governorates were implemented. A complete report on the results of each round was produced and distributed to all workers in the survey.
The quality control procedures covered 64.6% of total kism/district in urban areas, 34.2% of rural districts, and 34.1% of total EAs of the new sample, where the percentage of inconsistencies did not exceed 1.9%.
As for the panel sample, the quality control procedures covered 57.4% of total kism/district in urban areas, 19% of rural districts, and 16.1% of total EAs of the new sample, where the percentage of inconsistencies did not exceed 1.4%.
Economic Research Forum
Economic Research Forum (ERF) - 21 Al-Sad Al-Aaly St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt
To access the micro data, researchers are required to register on the ERF website and comply with the data access agreement.
The data will be used only for scholarly research, or educational purposes. Users are prohibited from using data acquired from the Economic Research Forum in the pursuit of any commercial or private ventures.
Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions.
The users should cite the Economic Research Forum and Central Agency For Public Mobilization & Statistics as follows:
OAMDI, 2014. Harmonized Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HHIES), http://www.erf.org.eg/cms.php?id=erfdataportal. Version 2.0 of Licensed Data Files; HIECS 2012/2013 - Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS). Egypt: Economic Research Forum (ERF).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The Economic Research Forum and the Central Agency For Public Mobilization & Statistics have granted the researcher access to relevant data following exhaustive efforts to protect the confidentiality of individual data. The researcher is solely responsible for any analysis or conclusions drawn from available data.
(c) 2014, Economic Research Forum | (c) 2013, CAPMAS, Egypt
DDI Document ID
Economic Research Forum
Cleaning and harmonizing raw data received from the Statistical Agency