Egypt - Survey of Young People in Egypt, SYPE 2014
VersionVersion 4.5: A version of SYPE 2014 data prepared by the Population Council and the ERF for dissemination
The five years that have passed since the Population Council's Survey of Young People in Egypt of 2009 (SYPE 2009) have proved to be a tumultuous period for the country. The year 2011 marked a historic year for Egyptian youth, as young people from around the country took an active role in the January 25 revolution.
Through their activism in early 2011, Egypt's young revolutionaries gained a platform to denounce their social and political marginalization, and demand their rights to freedom, justice, equality, and opportunity.
This unprecedented voice for Egypt's youth pointed a national spotlight on many of the challenges that were found in the 2009 SYPE, including an educational system unresponsive to youth needs, difficult employment conditions, low civic and political engagement, and a social environment that denies youth access to essential information about their transition to adulthood.
Since 2011, Egypt has undergone several political fluctuations and changes of power, with civil unrest and continued protests marking many events during the transition. Furthermore, the past four years have proven costly to Egypt's economic well-being and the labor market. Post-revolutionary political instability has resulted in the widespread divestment of foreign-owned firms, the declining value of the Egyptian pound, and a looming debt crisis the Egyptian state is still struggling to avoid. The tumultuous climate has resulted in an enormous drop in revenues for particular economic sectors, such as tourism. Moreover, the return of large numbers of migrants from Libya and other countries in the region affected by the “Arab Spring” has also negatively affected the Egyptian labor market.
This post-revolutionary economic stagnation is expected to have resulted in a steady deterioration of job quality and increasing employment informality, in the context of labor market conditions that were already difficult for young entrants. Such economic challenges could not come at a worse time for Egypt's youth.
Like other countries in the region, Egypt is currently experiencing a demographic “youth bulge,” meaning that the population of young people is significantly larger than other age groups. Although more highly educated than previous generations, this population of young people has struggled to achieve economic stability. Even prior to the 2011 uprisings, Egypt's youth constituted an estimated 90% of the country's unemployed.
It is therefore vital to question how Egypt's youth are now faring in a significantly more unfavorable economic climate, and whether they are able to access the professional opportunities needed to work toward economic independence and complete key life transitions such as getting married and starting a family. At the same time, the transitional period may have opened up new opportunities to youth in other areas of life, most notably deeper engagement with media, politics, and civic life. Such questions regarding youth employment and civic participation in the current tumultuous era, along with potential changes in the institutions and decisions that shape the transition to adulthood, such as health and access to health care, quality of education, migration, marriage, and youth attitudes and life outlooks, are what this report seeks to better understand.
The 2009 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) was fielded in May 2009 and collected data on several key areas of interest to youth, including education, employment, migration, health, family formation, social issues, and civic and political participation. In order to observe how young people have been faring during the transition period in Egypt in comparison to 2009, the Population Council designed the second wave of SYPE in 2014, which re-interviewed the same sample of young people who were interviewed in 2009. This yields a panel data set that spans the periods before and after the January 25, 2011 revolution, and that is nationally representative for both time periods.
Sample survey data [ssd]
2- Youth aged (13-35) years.
ScopeThe topics covered by the survey include the following:
3- Employment and labor market
4- International migration
5- Marriage and family formation
6- The youth of the revolution: participation in political events
7- Civic engagement and political attitudes
8- Attitudes toward gender roles
|Employment and labor market|
|Marriage and family formation|
|Civic engagement and political attitudes|
|Participation in political events|
|Attitudes toward gender roles|
CoverageThe SYPE sample is nationally representative, covering all governorates in Egypt, including the five Frontier governorates. The SYPE sample is considered to be an innovative design, because it allows for a priori inclusion of slum areas within the urban sample.
The survey covered a national sample of households and selected youth aged 13-35.
Producers and Sponsors
|Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics||Sample-design expertise|
|US Agency for International Development||USAID||Financial support|
|Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency||SIDA||Financial support|
|United Nations Population Fund||UNFPA||Financial support|
|Ford Foundation||Financial support|
|United Nations Children's Fund||UNICEF||Financial support|
|United Nations Development Programme||UNDP||Financial support|
|UN women||Financial support|
|UN volunteers||Financial support|
|Joint Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS||UNAIDS||Financial support|
|United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization||UNESCO||Financial support|
|World Health Organization||WHO||Financial support|
|University of Tennessee||Financial support|